Solid Starts Nutrition Ratings

How is the Nutrition Rating determined?

Each food in our free First Foods® database is rated according to a nutrition star system developed by our multidisciplinary team of nutritionists, dietitians, pediatricians, and licensed infant-feeding specialists. Our team dives deep into the scientific research and data to formulate ratings for each food.

Nutrition is not a perfect science—it’s constantly evolving and influenced by countless agricultural, environmental, research, and cultural variables. Please use the database as an educational tool. It is not intended to replace recommendations from a baby’s pediatric health professional.

Solid Starts is aligned with recommendations from the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics to introduce solid food around 6 months of age, which is typically when babies show signs of readiness.1 2 Prior to 12 months of age, solid food is complementary to breast/human milk or formula, which should remain the primary source of nutrition until a child’s first birthday.

We created the star rating system to help you quickly understand the nutritional content of foods. In evaluating any given food for babies, we consider the complex nutritional needs of healthy infants and toddlers around the world during a key window of development—their first 1,000 days of life—while accounting for nutrients that are low in most children’s diets.3 4

When considering which foods you want to serve, remember that variety is key for both health and preventing picky eating. Which is to say: It is better to offer a wide variety of foods regardless of nutrition rating rather than a rotation of a few 5-star foods. Variety is key.

a bunch of green asparagus spears before being prepared for babies starting solid food
a pile of blackberries before being prepared for babies starting solids

What do the star ratings mean?

The number of stars given to a food, based on an age-appropriate serving size, reflects both the nutrients it contains and any potential downsides.

In general, more key nutrients equals more stars. But a rating could be reduced if a food also contains high amounts of sodium, sugar, environmental contaminants, or harmful elements like arsenic and mercury. For example, tuna contains iron and omega fatty acids that benefit babies, but also has high levels of mercury—a harmful heavy metal to which babies are particularly susceptible. As such, tuna’s rating is lowered to account for its mercury level.

The logic of the ratings

When an age-appropriate serving of a food provides 10-20% of a child’s daily need for a particular nutrient, it is considered a good source of that nutrient. If a food provides more than 20% of that nutrient in a similar-sized serving, it’s considered a great source. These percentages also help determine the final star rating.

  • 5 Stars: Contains great amounts of three or more key nutrients or beneficial components; OR good amounts of five or more key nutrients or beneficial components (such as probiotics and fiber); OR good amounts of three key nutrients or beneficial components plus great amounts of one or more key nutrients or beneficial components.
  • 4 Stars: Contains great amounts of two key nutrients or beneficial components; OR good amounts of four key nutrients or beneficial components; OR good amounts of two key nutrients or beneficial components plus great amounts of one or two key nutrients or beneficial components.
  • 3 Stars: Contains good amounts of three key nutrients or beneficial components, or good amounts of one key nutrient or beneficial component plus great amounts of one or two key nutrients or beneficial components.
  • 2 Stars: May contain good amounts of key nutrients or beneficial components, or varied content of key nutrients or beneficial components but lacks adequate concentrations. Herbs and spices are commonly 2-star foods as they are nutrient-dense but not typically consumed in amounts that are nutritionally significant.
  • 1 Star: Does not contain good or great amounts of key nutrients but may contain other nutrients and/or or beneficial components in lesser amounts.

What are key nutrients for babies?

According to researchers, the following nine nutrients play particularly vital roles in optimal growth, development, and overall health in the first 1,000 days and are often inadequate in the diets of young children worldwide. Please note: This is not an exhaustive list of all important nutrients for children.  

  • Vitamin A + certain carotenoids 
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Folate
  • Iron 
  • Zinc
  • Calcium
  • Fiber
  • Omega-3 fatty acids

We identified five additional nutrients and beneficial components of foods that enhance children’s brain development, digestive function, and overall health. Good or great amounts of the following may increase the Solid Starts star rating:

  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B12 (especially for vegetarians and vegans)
  • Choline
  • Iodine
  • Probiotics

Food for thought

The nutritional value of food is greater than the sum of its parts, as food can provide far more than just nourishment: enjoyment, curiosity, a broader palate, or healthier habits. Many fruits, vegetables, and spices are highly beneficial for baby’s physical and cognitive development, but because they lack iron and omega-3 fatty acids, for example, they may receive fewer stars in our system. Regardless of rating, we encourage offering a wide range of foods to help create more diverse experiences for babies and the whole family.

Additional References

Aggett, P. J., Agostoni, C., Axelsson, I., Edwards, C. A., Goulet, O., Hernell, O., Koletzko, B., Lafeber, H. N., Micheli, J.-L., Michaelsen, K. F., Rigo, J., Szajewska, H., & Weaver, L. T. (2003). Nondigestible Carbohydrates in the Diets of Infants and Young Children: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 36(3), 329–337. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200303000-00006

Bailey, R. L., Catellier, D. J., Jun, S., Dwyer, J. T., Jacquier, E. F., Anater, A. S., & Eldridge, A. L. (2018). Total Usual Nutrient Intakes of US Children (Under 48 Months): Findings from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016. The Journal of Nutrition, 148(Suppl 3), 1557S-1566S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy042

Beluska-Turkan, K., Korczak, R., Hartell, B., Moskal, K., Maukonen, J., Alexander, D. E., Salem, N., Harkness, L., Ayad, W., Szaro, J., Zhang, K., & Siriwardhana, N. (2019). Nutritional Gaps and Supplementation in the First 1000 Days. Nutrients, 11(12), 2891. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122891

Briefel, R., Ziegler, P., Novak, T., & Ponza, M. (2006). Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: Characteristics and Usual Nutrient Intake of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Infants and Toddlers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106(1), 84.e1-84.e14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2005.09.040

Butte, N. F., Fox, M. K., Briefel, R. R., Siega-Riz, A. M., Dwyer, J. T., Deming, D. M., & Reidy, K. C. (2010). Nutrient Intakes of US Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers Meet or Exceed Dietary Reference Intakes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110(12), S27–S37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2010.09.004

Decsi, T., & Lohner, S. (2014). Gaps in Meeting Nutrient Needs in Healthy Toddlers. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 65(1), 22–28. https://doi.org/10.1159/000365795

Denney, L., Angeles-Agdeppa, I., Capanzana, M. V., Toledo, M. B., Donohue, J., & Carriquiry, A. (2018). Nutrient Intakes and Food Sources of Filipino Infants, Toddlers and Young Children are Inadequate: Findings from the National Nutrition Survey 2013. Nutrients, 10(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111730

Derbyshire, E., & Obeid, R. (2020). Choline, Neurological Development and Brain Function: A Systematic Review Focusing on the First 1000 Days. Nutrients, 12(6), 1731. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061731

De-Regil, L. M., Suchdev, P. S., Vist, G. E., Walleser, S., & Peña-Rosas, J. P. (2013). Home fortification of foods with multiple micronutrient powders for health and nutrition in children under two years of age (Review). Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, 8(1), 112–201. https://doi.org/10.1002/ebch.1895

Dewey, K. G. (2013). The Challenge of Meeting Nutrient Needs of Infants and Young Children during the Period of Complementary Feeding: An Evolutionary Perspective. The Journal of Nutrition, 143(12), 2050–2054. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.113.182527

Eldridge, A. L., Catellier, D. J., Hampton, J. C., Dwyer, J. T., & Bailey, R. L. (2019). Trends in Mean Nutrient Intakes of US Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children from 3 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Studies (FITS). The Journal of Nutrition, 149(7), 1230–1237. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz054

Goldbohm, R. A., Rubingh, C. M., Lanting, C. I., & Joosten, K. F. M. (2016). Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands. Nutrients, 8(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070428

Hilger, J., Goerig, T., Weber, P., Hoeft, B., Eggersdorfer, M., Costa Carvalho, N., Goldberger, U., & Hoffmann, K. (2015). Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective. Nutrients, 7(8), 6938–6955. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085316

Jiménez-Aguilar, A., González Castell, D., Flores-Aldana, M., Mundo-Rosas, V., Hernández-Cordero, S., & García-Feregrino, R. (2018). Dietary intake and adequacy in Mexican preschool children: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 35(5), 1186. https://doi.org/10.20960/nh.1843

Jun, S., Catellier, D. J., Eldridge, A. L., Dwyer, J. T., Eicher-Miller, H. A., & Bailey, R. L. (2018). Usual Nutrient Intakes from the Diets of US Children by WIC Participation and Income: Findings from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016. The Journal of Nutrition, 148(suppl_3), 1567S-1574S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy059

Krebs, N. F., Lozoff, B., & Georgieff, M. K. (2017). Neurodevelopment: The Impact of Nutrition and Inflammation During Infancy in Low-Resource Settings. Pediatrics, 139(Supplement 1), S50–S58. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2828G

Mensink, G. B. M., Fletcher, R., Gurinovic, M., Huybrechts, I., Lafay, L., Serra-Majem, L., Szponar, L., Tetens, I., Verkaik-Kloosterman, J., Baka, A., & Stephen, A. M. (2013). Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe. The British Journal of Nutrition, 110(4), 755–773. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711451200565X

Mun, J. G., Legette, L. L., Ikonte, C. J., & Mitmesser, S. H. (2019). Choline and DHA in Maternal and Infant Nutrition: Synergistic Implications in Brain and Eye Health. Nutrients, 11(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051125

Nasreddine, L. M., Kassis, A. N., Ayoub, J. J., Naja, F. A., & Hwalla, N. C. (2018). Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children amid the nutrition transition: The case of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Nutrition Research, 57, 12–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2018.04.016

Pereira-da-Silva, L., Rêgo, C., & Pietrobelli, A. (2016). The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(6), 572. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060572

Prado, E. L., & Dewey, K. G. (2014). Nutrition and brain development in early life. Nutrition Reviews, 72(4), 267–284. https://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12102

Rosales, F. J., & Zeisel, S. H. (n.d.). Perspectives from the symposium: The Role of Nutrition in Infant and Toddler Brain and Behavioral Development. 10.

Schwarzenberg, S. J., Georgieff, M. K., & COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION. (2018). Advocacy for Improving Nutrition in the First 1000 Days to Support Childhood Development and Adult Health. Pediatrics, 141(2), e20173716. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-3716

Sheri Volger, Xiaoyang Sheng, Ling M Tong, Dongmei Zhao, Ting Fan, Feng Zhang, John Ge, Wing Man Ho, Nicholas P Hays, & Manjiang Yao. (2017). Nutrient intake and dietary patterns in children 2.5-5 years of age with picky eating behaviours and low weight-for-height. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 26(1). https://doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.102015.02

Solomons, N. W., & Vossenaar, M. (2013). Nutrient density in complementary feeding of infants and toddlers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(5), 501–506. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.46

Verduci, E., Banderali, G., Montanari, C., Berni Canani, R., Cimmino Caserta, L., Corsello, G., Mosca, F., Piazzolla, R., Rescigno, M., Terracciano, L., Troiano, E., Crosa, M., Maffeis, C., & Francavilla, R. (2019). Childhood Dietary Intake in Italy: The Epidemiological “MY FOOD DIARY” Survey. Nutrients, 11(5), 1129. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051129

Wallace, T. C., Blusztajn, J. K., Caudill, M. A., Klatt, K. C., Natker, E., Zeisel, S. H., & Zelman, K. M. (2018). Choline: The Underconsumed and Underappreciated Essential Nutrient. Nutrition Today, 53(6), 240–253. https://doi.org/10.1097/NT.0000000000000302

Reviewed by:

J. Truppi, MSN, CNS 

V. Kalami, MNSP, RD, CSP

E. Cerda, MSN, CNS, LDN

A. Gilbaugh, RD, CNSC

A. Derma Salazar MS, CCC-SLP/L

K. Tatiana Maldonado, MS, CCC-SLP, CBIS, CLEC

K. Grenawitzke, OTD, OTR/L, SCFES, IBCLC, CNT

K. Rappaport, OTR/L, MS, SCFES, IBCLC

Dr. R. Ruiz, MD, FAAP. Board-Certified General Pediatrician & Pediatric Gastroenterologist

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2021). Infant Food and Feeding. https://www.aap.org/en/patient-care-pages-in-progress/healthy-active-living-for-families/infant-food-and-feeding/
  2. Ballard, O., & Morrow, A. L. (2013). Human Milk Composition. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 60(1), 49–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2012.10.002
  3. Dewey, K. G. (2013). The Challenge of Meeting Nutrient Needs of Infants and Young Children during the Period of Complementary Feeding: An Evolutionary Perspective. The Journal of Nutrition, 143(12), 2050–2054. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.113.182527
  4. Rosales, F. J., & Zeisel, S. H. (2008). Perspectives from the symposium: The Role of Nutrition in Infant and Toddler Brain and Behavioral Development. Nutritional Neuroscience, 11(3), 135–143. https://doi.org/10.1179/147683008×301522
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